The Costs of Meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Hutton, G., Varughese, M.
Water and Sanitation Program
Jan. 2016

The study assesses the global costs of meeting WASH-related goals of Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6). It concludes that current  financing is sufficient in covering the capital costs of SDG6, however, three times the amount of current capital investment is required.

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Rapid Assessment of Water Supply: City of Visakhapatnam

Safe Water Network
USAID
Dec. 2015

The first in a series of reports under the USAID-funded Urban Small Water Enterprises for Smarter Cities project, this report gives an in-depth look at the city water supply in Vizag with important findings for improving efficiencies of the piped network, and expanding urban small water enterprises. 

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Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis

Shields, K., Bain, R., Cronk, R., Wright, J., Bartram, J.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 123, Number 12
Dec. 2015

This study assessed the relationship between fecal contamination at water source and in household stored water, and found that water quality substantially deteriorates by the time it reaches the household. Non-piped water has higher odds of being contaminated, possibly due to residual chlorine.

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Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India

Ercumen, A., Arnold, B., Kumpel, E., Burt, Z., Ray, I., Nelson, K., Colford Jr., J.
PLOS Medicine
Oct. 2015

This study proves that intermittent delivery of piped water compared to continuous delivery can lead to waterborne diseases because of pipe contamination, during household storage, use of alternative water which is unsafe, and limited water availability for hygiene.

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