‘Slippage’: The Bane of Drinking Water and Sanitation Sector (A Study of Extent and Causes in Rural Andhra Pradesh)

Reddy, V., Rammohan Rao, M., Venkataswamy, M.
WASHCost India

This paper assesses the reasons why service delivery of water and sanitation frequently fails, known as "slippage." Slippage in some states of India is as high as 60%, and there is evidence that stronger policy can reduce this issue and increase water security.

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Frontier Capital: Early Stage Investing for Financial Returns and Social Impact in Emerging Markets

Bannick, M., Goldman, P., and Kubzansky, M.
Omidyar Network

Low- and lower-middle income populations have huge unmet needs and face quite a bit of instability - challenges that can be addressed by innovative business models. Companies serving this demographic represent an under-tapped opportunity both for financial returns and for outsized impact. 

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Water and Sanitation

Bosch, C., Hommann, K., Rubio, G., Sadoff, C., Travers, L.

This chapter describes how adequate water and sanitation resources can reduce poverty. It recommends improving policy such that private sector social enterprises can thrive. For public-operated services, increasing standards to those recognized internationally is recommended.

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Partnerships in Urban Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH)

USAID India

Rapid urbanization has put a strain on water and sanitation in urban communities. Through public-private partnerships, USAID aims to strengthen and scale up small water enterprises and sanitation systems to reduce maternal and child deaths from malnutrition and water-borne diseases.

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