Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Bringing Water to Where It is Needed Most: Innovative Private Sector Participation in Water and Sanitation

Smart Lessons
Jan. 2011

This report is a compilation of smaller reports that give immense details on how to successfully operate small water and sanitation enterprises in rural and peri-urban communities in developing nations. It discusses the successes of public-private partnerships in various situations.

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Water Supply and Health

Hunter, P., MacDonald, A., Carter, R.
PLOS Medicine
Nov. 2010

Safe, reliable, affordable, and accessible water is required for good health, however one billion people do not have access to it. This is because of high population growth rates, insufficient capital investment, difficulty in managing water supplies, and lack of local water resource development.

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Private Operators and Rural Water Supplies: A Desk Review of Experience

Kleemeier, E.
World Bank
Nov. 2010

The potential contribution from private operators is well-known for small towns. Rural private operator initiatives in low-density areas are a promising option for addressing the problems of sustainable operation and maintenance, but they are not an alternative to capable government institutions.

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Opportunities and Challenges of Community-Based Rural Drinking Water Supplies

Sun, Y., Asante, F., Birner, R.
International Food Policy Research Institute
Oct. 2010

Ghana has adopted a community-based approach to overcome the challenge of supplying drinking water to rural areas. Communities with large ethnic diversities are less likely to have functioning water systems, and cooperative leadership helps provide communities with these services.

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Public-Private Partnerships For Small Piped Water Schemes

Water and Sanitation Program
Oct. 2010

This field note reviews the first generation of public-private partnerships for small piped water enterprises in a number of African countries, and proposes a framework for more sustainable PPPs of this nature. Some ideas to consider are improving contracting practices and the enabling environment.

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A Review of Progress in Seven African Countries: Public-Private Partnerships for Small Piped Water Schemes

Gia, L.H. & Fugelsnes, T.
World Bank Water & Sanitation Program
Oct. 2010

The first generation of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for small piped water schemes in seven African countries construct a framework comprising four building blocks: improving contracting practices, enabling environment, capacity of the PPP stakeholders, and information tools and services.

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Field Assessment of a Novel Household-Based Water Filtration Device: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Boisson, S. et al.
Sep. 2010

Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of water and may prevent diarrheal diseases, but bias can effect reported health impact in open trials. This randomised, controlled trial shows little evidence that a novel filtration device  was protective against diarrhea.

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Myths of the Rural Water Supply Sector

Rural Water Supply Network
May. 2010

This document examines several common myths associated with rural water supply, and provides evidence as to why they  are not pragmatically true. It describes how enterprises can overcome these myths to provide sustainable and effective clean water supplies in rural regions.

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End-User Preferences for and Performance of Competing POU Water Treatment Technologies among the Rural Poor of Kenya

Albert, J., Luoto, J., and Levine, D.
Environmental Science & Technology
Jan. 2010

We do not understand the factors that influence preference for and adoption of household point-of-use water treatment technologies targeted at vulnerable populations. In this study of 400 rural subsistence farm households in Kenya, relative end-user preference was measured across three products. 

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Cost of Delivering Water Services in Rural Areas and Small Towns in Ghana

Nyarko K. B., Dwumfour-Asare, B., Appiah-Effah, E. and Moriarty, P.
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Jan. 2010

The life-cycle costs approach quantifies the cost of delivering water services in rural areas and small towns in Ghana: average annual cost for small town piped water systems ranges from US$ 10 to 14 per capita per year while that for water point sources is about US$ 4 per capita per year

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