Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Dalberg
Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.

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Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale

Arnold et al.
BMJ Open
Aug. 2013

The WASH Benefits study aims to fill the evidence gap on the effects of individual and combined interventions - water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional  - on diarrhea and growth when delivered to infants and young children. Here, study design and rationale are explained. 

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Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

Boisson et al.
PLoS ONE
Aug. 2013

This study, designed to overcome shortcomings of previous double-blinded trials of household water treatment, provides no evidence that the intervention was protective against diarrhoea. Low compliance and modest reduction in water contamination may have contributed to the lack of effect. 

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Public Health and Social Benefits of at-house Water Supplies

Evans, B., Bartram, J., Hunter, P., Williams, A.R., Geere, J., Majuru, B., Bates, L., Fisher, M., Overbo, Al, Schmidt, W.
University of Leeds
Jun. 2013

At-home water supply has significant, measurable benefits compared to shared water supply outside the home provided that the service provided is reliable enough to ensure access to adequate quantities of water when required, suggesting a logical policy shift towards  promotion of household access.

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Setting Priorities for Development of Emerging Interventions Against Childhood Diarrhoea

Bhutta, Z., Zipursky, A., Wazny, K., Levine, M., Black, R., Bassani, D., Shantosham, M. Freedman, S., Grange, A., Kosek, M., Keenan, W., Petri, W., Campbell, H., Rudan, I.
Journal of Global Health
Jun. 2013

An expert panel exercise was conducted to assess feasibility and potential effectiveness of 10 emerging health interventions against childhood diarrhoea. Results show most collective optimism towards developing household or community-level water treatment. 

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Pooled Funding to Support Service Delivery: Lessons of Experience from Fragile and Conflict-Affected States

Commins, S., Davies, F., Gordon, A., Hodson, E., Hughes, and Lister, S.
Department for International Development
May. 2013

This review of 16 pooled funds highlights  potential advantages - donor harmonization and operation on a larger scale with lower transaction costs, for example - but notes their performance frequently falls short of expectations, leading donors to pursue alternative or parallel channels of funding. 

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Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Evidence Paper

DFID
May. 2013

Inadequate WASH facilities contribute substantially to childhood mortality, and lead to health issues beyond gastro-intestinal such as respiratory infections and under nutrition. There are few detailed studies of scaled WASH programs so it is hard to conclude on best cost-effective delivery methods.

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Market Assessment: Market-Based Provision of Water at the Community Level in Ghana

Safe Water Network
Feb. 2013

This market and feasibility assessment identifies the barriers and evaluates the potential for decentralized market-based approaches to provide sustainable safe water to the poor in rural, remote and small town communities in Ghana. 

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Impact of Water-Vending Kiosks and Hygiene Education on Household Drinking Water Quality in Rural Ghana

Opryszko, MC at al.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Feb. 2013

The study indicates that households using for-profit water-vending WaterHealth Centers in Ghana had improved water quality compared with households using untreated surface water. However, only 38% of households using these kiosks by the third year, 60% of which had E. coli in their water.

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Impact of Water-Vending Kiosks and Hygiene Education on Household Drinking Water Quality in Rural Ghana

Opryszko, Y., MacDonald, L., MacDonald, L., Kiihl, S., Schwab, K.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; Vol 88, 651-660
Jan. 2013

This study assesses a for-profit water-vending kiosk organization in rural Ghana to determine the quality of household drinking water. Surface water is treated with filtration and UV light disinfection. Results showed the water to be of  improved quality versus untreated surface water.

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Water Source and Diarrhoeal Disease Risk in Children Under 5 Years Old in Cambodia: A Prospective Diary Based Study

Hunter et al.
BMC Public Health
Jan. 2013

This study suggests that water from “1001 fontaines pour demain,” which supports water entrepreneurs in communities to build water treatment and distribution businesses, provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water, and raises concerns about assumptions on the safety of groundwater. 

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