Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



The Decentralized Water Market: Assessing and Overcoming the Hurdles to Scale in Kenya

Safe Water Network and International Finance Corporation
Sanitation and Safe Water for All (SSAWA) program
Jan. 2013

An assessment of experiences with decentralized market-based approaches in the Kenya water sector identifies options for attracting greater commercial investment in the sector, both in Kenya and elsewhere. Opportunities lie in private  commercial operators to work in concert with sector reform. 

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Impact of Water-Vending Kiosks and Hygiene Education on Household Drinking Water Quality in Rural Ghana

Opryszko, Y., MacDonald, L., MacDonald, L., Kiihl, S., Schwab, K.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; Vol 88, 651-660
Jan. 2013

This study assesses a for-profit water-vending kiosk organization in rural Ghana to determine the quality of household drinking water. Surface water is treated with filtration and UV light disinfection. Results showed the water to be of  improved quality versus untreated surface water.

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Tools for Safe Water Stations: A Guide to Providing Clean Water for Healthier Communities

Safe Water Network
Jan. 2013

Developed by Safe Water Network with support from the PepsiCo Foundation, this tool kit is designed to establish safe water systems, consisting not only of the physical infrastructure, but also of the human relationships, capacities, knowledge, and processes necessary to keep such systems operating successfully over the long term.

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The Joint Effects of Efficacy and Compliance: A Study of Household Water Treatment Effectiveness Against Childhood Diarrhea

Enger, K., Nelson, K., Rose, J., Eisenberg, J.
Dec. 2012

The effectiveness of household water treatment on preventing diarrhea is dependent on efficacy and whether the treatment is done properly each time to the drinking water. Without perfect compliance, the water remains contaminated and incidence of diarrhea does not decrease.

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Evaluating the Sustained Health Impact of Household Chlorination of Drinking Water in Rural Haiti

Harshfield, E., Lantagne, D., Turbes, A., and Null, C.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sep. 2012

An evaluation of the long-term Jolivert Safe Water for Families program in Haiti showed diarrheal disease reduction was comparable with that seen in short-term randomized, controlled interventions, suggesting that household chlorination can be an effective long-term water treatment strategy. 

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Market Assessment: Commercial Provision of Water at the Community Level in Kenya

Safe Water Network
Safe Water Network
Sep. 2012

Developed with support from IFC, this report represents the final stage of a multi-phased project to carry out an in-depth market assessment of the safe water markets in Kenya.

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Decentralized Safe Water Kiosks: Working Toward a Sustainable Model in Ghana

Safe Water Network
Aug. 2012

This report details the specific challenges Safe Water Network faced in Ghana since 2009, when it set out to demonstrate whether locally-owned, decentralized safe water systems could meet demand for safe water in Ghana on a sustainable basis. It also identifies the next set of priorities. 

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Accelerating Impact: Achievements, Challenges and What's Next in Building the Impact Investing Industry

E.T. Jackson and Associates Ltd
Rockefeller Foundation
Jul. 2012

A scan of the evolution of the impact investment worldwide, informed by interviews with more than 100 impact investors from 11 countries, shows the industry  remains in the market-building phase but could evolve to the next phase in which stakeholders fully capture the value of the marketplace.

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Public-Private Partnerships for Rural Water Services

IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Jun. 2012

Well-designed rural water PPPs have shown some success in countries with civil law but proof that this model will deliver sustainable rural water supplies at scale, however, awaits more data on long-term costs, profitability, and performance.

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Achieving Financial Sustainability and Recovering Costs in Bank Financed Water Supply and Sanitation and Irrigation Projects

McPhail, A., Locussol, A., Perry, Chris.
Water Partnership Project
Jun. 2012

Difficulty in making water systems financially sustainable causes inability to maintain infrastructure, leading to poor service, and hence increased unwillingness of consumer to pay for service. This cycle is one of many reasons for poor financial sustainability.

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