Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Worldwide Needs for Safe Drinking Water are Underestimated: Billions of People are Impacted

Payen, G.
Nov. 2011

The need for improved access to water is enormous. Billions of people are
concerned not hundreds of millions. Public policies must make a quantum leap to ensure satisfactory access to truly safe drinking water for everyone. 

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Ladders for Assessing and Costing Water Service Delivery

Moriarty, P., Batchelor, C., Fonseca, C., Klutse, A., Naafs, A., Nyarko, K., Peson, C., Potter, A., Reddy, R., Snehalatha, M.
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Nov. 2011

This paper introduces the concept of service levels to improve the planning and monitoring of water services. Important issues include considering how multiple uses of water from a source can distort data about quantity of water used for drinking.

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Access to Safe Water: For the Base of the Pyramid

Carvalho, A., Graf, J., Kayser, O., and Vousvouras, C.
Hystra; Ashoka
Sep. 2011

Existing solutions have proven it is possible to develop adapted, sustainable solutions for low-density, remote areas but scaling-up requires more philanthropic support and significant marketing innovation to boost penetration levels. Urban network expansion requires government support. 

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National Policy on Public Private Partnerships

Government of Ghana: Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning
Jun. 2011

Ghana's large deficit in infrastructure constrains the growth of the economy, and given limited public budget resources, the government alone cannot overcome this issue. Therefore, it is government policy to use public-private partnerships to deliver efficient public infrastucture and services.

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Promise and Progress: Market-Based Solutions to Poverty in Africa

Kubzansky, M., Cooper, A., Barbary, V.
Monitor Group
May. 2011

Despite the obstacles, market-based solutions are proliferating in Africa. Promise and Progress affirms the conclusion of Monitor’s research in India that, for these solutions to succeed, they must operate with business models suited to the extreme conditions of low-income markets.

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Water Supply and Sanitation in Ghana: Turning Finances into Services for 2015 and Beyond

AMCOW Country Status Overview
Jan. 2011

This reports suggests how to overcome challenges in water supply and efficiently provide services with given finances. Suggestions include innovative ways to finance and implement programs, restructuring plans and policies, and improvement of quality and regularity of monitoring and evaluation.

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Bringing Water to Where It is Needed Most: Innovative Private Sector Participation in Water and Sanitation

Smart Lessons
Jan. 2011

This report is a compilation of smaller reports that give immense details on how to successfully operate small water and sanitation enterprises in rural and peri-urban communities in developing nations. It discusses the successes of public-private partnerships in various situations.

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Valuing Water, Valuing Livelihoods: Guidance on Social Cost-Benefit Analysis of Drinking-Water Interventions, with Special Reference to Small Community Water Supplies

Cameron, J., Hunter, P., Jagals, P., and Pond, K. (Eds.)
World Health Organization
Jan. 2011

The aim of this book is to give decision-makers, health professionals and analysts a comprehensive view of the arguments and challenges associated with establishing the value of drinking-water interventions, with a focus on the socioeconomic appraisal and evaluation of drinking-water interventions.

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Water Supply and Health

Hunter, P., MacDonald, A., Carter, R.
PLOS Medicine
Nov. 2010

Safe, reliable, affordable, and accessible water is required for good health, however one billion people do not have access to it. This is because of high population growth rates, insufficient capital investment, difficulty in managing water supplies, and lack of local water resource development.

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Private Operators and Rural Water Supplies: A Desk Review of Experience

Kleemeier, E.
World Bank
Nov. 2010

The potential contribution from private operators is well-known for small towns. Rural private operator initiatives in low-density areas are a promising option for addressing the problems of sustainable operation and maintenance, but they are not an alternative to capable government institutions.

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