Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Implementation, Critical Factors and Challenges to Scale-Up of Household Drinking Water Treatment and Safe Storage Systems

Murcott, S.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
May. 2006

Household drinking water treatment and safe storage systems empower people to attain the basic human right of drinking safe water. Scale-up of these technologies is important, and WHO has expanded its recommendations to include making more resources available to program implementers.

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Determinants of Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure

Hammami, M., Ruhashyankiko, J.F., Yehoue, E.
Apr. 2006

This paper analyzes the cross-country and cross-industry determinants of public-private partnerships (PPPs). PPPs tend to be more common in countries where governments are heavily indebted. Less corruption, effective law, and macroeconomic stability contribute to successful PPPs.

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Governance of Water and Sanitation Services for the Peri-urban Poor: A Framework for Understanding and Action in Metropolitan Regions

Allen, A., Davila, J., Hofmann, P.
Jan. 2006

The distinction between urban and rural centers is becoming more blurred as peri-urban communities grow. However, governments are failing to take into account these communities and need to consider new institutional and technical set-ups to respond to the ever changing needs of peri-urban residents.

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Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services: A Toolkit

Public-Private Partnership Advisory Facility
The World Bank
Jan. 2006

This Toolkit helps developing country governments interested in using private firms to expand access to safe water and sanitation services at reasonable cost. Its focus is on design arrangements governing private participation that maximize benefits for their countries, provinces, or municipalities.

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Urbanization in Developing Countries: Current Trends, Future Projections, and Key Challenges for Sustainability

Cohen, B.
Technology in Society
Jan. 2006

Rapid urbanization in developing countries has put a strain on cities' abilities to provide adequate basic infrastructure. Many international agencies have not accurately assessed the anticipated urban growth rates, or are unaware of the growing urban poor population.

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Reducing Diarrhoea in Guatemalan Children: Randomized Controlled Trial of Flocculant Disinfectant for Drinking Water

Chiller, T. et al.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Jan. 2006

A randommized control trial among rural Guatemalan households shows households receiving a commercially-developed flocculant-disinfectant had a reduced prevalnece of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, than those using standrad water-handing practies. 

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Household-Based Ceramic Water Filters for the Prevention of Diarrhea: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Pilot Program in Colombia

Clasen, T., Parra, G., Boisson, S., and Collin, S.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Oct. 2005

Ceramic filters were associated with reduced diarrhea prevalance in a randmized, controlled trial in Colombia. However, the circumstances of a particular setting must be considered as microbiologic performance and protective effect of the filters was not uniform throughout the study communities.

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State Versus Private Sector Provision of Water Services in Africa: An Empirical Analysis

Kirkpatrick, C., Parker, D., Zhang, Y.
University of Manchester
Sep. 2005

This study analyzes the effect of privatization of water in Africa. It fails to find evidence of better performance by private utilities compared to state-owned, and concludes that water privatization in developing economies is problematic due to the nature of transaction and poor regulations.

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Household Based Treatment of Drinking Water with Flocculant-Disinfectant for Preventing Diarrhoea in Areas with Turbid Source Water in Rural Western Kenya: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

Crump, J. et al.
Jul. 2005

In areas of turbid water, flocculant-disinfectant was associated with a significant reduction in diarrhoea among children < 2 years. Results suggest that the flocculant-disinfectant is well suited to areas with highly contaminated and turbid water.

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The Importance of Domestic Water Quality Management in the Context of Fecal–Oral Disease Transmission

Trevett, A., Carter, R., Tyrrel, S.
Journal of Water and Health
Jan. 2005

This paper examines the health risks of consuming recontaminated water at the household level. The type of container used to store the water, and hand contact with the water has shown to increase incidence of diarrhea. Infants and immunodeficient persons are at most risk.

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