Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Kumpel, E., Peletz, R., Bonham, M., Fay, A., Cock-Esteb, A., Khush, R.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol 12, 10846-10860
Jun. 2016

This study reveals that water quality testing occurs in labs and not at the water sources, therefore, mobile phone-based data will help institutions collect data from multiple labs and offices. This will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of such an intervention.

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Mobile for Development Utilities: Improving Water Service Delivery Through Mobile Data Collection

Jun. 2016

Inefficient water delivery services have led to consumers in mostly sub-Saharan Africa and Asia without access to improved drinking water. Mobile technology is now being used to collect and share data on water functionality and use, hoping to improve water service delivery.

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Making Water Work: Small Water Enterprises Provide Communities Access to Safe Drinking Water

Skoczlas Cole, A., Soderlund, K.
Water Quality Products
Jun. 2016

As the global water sector begins to focus not only on the number of people with access to water, but the quality dimensions of that access, this paper examines small water enterprises as a means to  provide affordable, safe water to those most in need.

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Consumer Research Interventions

Safe Water Network
Apr. 2016

This guide has the researched and tested methods of Safe Water Network in providing sustainable water systems in  developing nations. Such systems often face barriers in quality, financial sustainability, ownership, and inclusiveness, which the organization has managed to overcome with experience.

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Smart Lessons - Bringing Water to Where It is Needed Most: Innovative Private Sector Participation in Water & Sanitation

International Finance Corporation
World Bank Group; Water and Sanitation Program
Jan. 2016

A variety of experiences highlight innovative and diverse initiatives across the World Bank Group, ranging from the Water Footprints Network that supports businesses improving their water use efficiency to the innovative financing mechanisms enabling the expansion of rural water access in Kenya. 

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The Costs of Meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Hutton, G., Varughese, M.
Water and Sanitation Program
Jan. 2016

The study assesses the global costs of meeting WASH-related goals of Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6). It concludes that current  financing is sufficient in covering the capital costs of SDG6, however, three times the amount of current capital investment is required.

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Results of Round I of the WHO International Scheme to Evaluate Household Water Treatment Technologies

Jan. 2016

In the short-run, household water treatment and safe storage can reduce contaminated water consumption and thus water-borne diseases. A number of these treatments are available and were found to meet WHO recommended performance targets. Behavior interventions and better regulations are still needed.

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Rapid Assessment of Water Supply: City of Visakhapatnam

Safe Water Network
Dec. 2015

The first in a series of reports under the USAID-funded Urban Small Water Enterprises for Smarter Cities project, this report gives an in-depth look at the city water supply in Vizag with important findings for improving efficiencies of the piped network, and expanding urban small water enterprises. 

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Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis

Shields, K., Bain, R., Cronk, R., Wright, J., Bartram, J.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 123, Number 12
Dec. 2015

This study assessed the relationship between fecal contamination at water source and in household stored water, and found that water quality substantially deteriorates by the time it reaches the household. Non-piped water has higher odds of being contaminated, possibly due to residual chlorine.

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Upgrading a Piped Water Supply from Intermittent to Continuous Delivery and Association with Waterborne Illness: A Matched Cohort Study in Urban India

Ercumen, A., Arnold, B., Kumpel, E., Burt, Z., Ray, I., Nelson, K., Colford Jr., J.
PLOS Medicine
Oct. 2015

This study proves that intermittent delivery of piped water compared to continuous delivery can lead to waterborne diseases because of pipe contamination, during household storage, use of alternative water which is unsafe, and limited water availability for hygiene.

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