Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Spare Parts Supply Chain Study for Piped Water Systems

Dr. Kwabena Biritwum Nyarko, Dr. Eugene Appiah-Effah
Safe Water Network, UNICEF
Apr. 2017

This report, developed in partnership with Safe Water Network and UNICEF, seeks to strengthen the operational sustainability of water systems by examining the supply chain of spare parts.

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Packaged Water: Optimizing Local Processes for Sustainable Water Delivery in Developing Nations

Dada, A.
Globalization and Health
Aug. 2016

With a lack of reliable water services in developing countries, people rely on packaged water. This water does not meet international standards for safety, and is often simply disregarded as a water source. However, it's use is widely prevalent and deserves focus to improve standards.

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Cost of Providing Sustainable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Services: An initial assessment of LCCA in Andhra Pradesh

Reddy, R., Batchelor, C.
WASHCost India
Aug. 2016

WASH service levels remain low in India because more focus is put on capital expenditure than operational expenditure, hence, quantity and quality of service becomes inadequate. This paper looks at life-cycle cost approaches, so as to avoid deterioration of services.

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Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Combat Childhood Diarrhoea in Developing Countries

Waddington, H., Snilstveit, B., White H., and Fewtrell, L.
Aug. 2016

The results of this study challenge the notion that water quality treatment in the household (at point-of-use) and sanitation ‘software’ (hygiene) interventions are necessarily the most efficacious and sustainable interventions for promoting reduction of diarrhoea.

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Fluoride in Groundwater: Evaluation of Removal Methods

Saxena K. L., Sewak R. and Stea R.
International Journal of Development Research
Jul. 2016

Widespread fluoride contamination of groundwater has increased incidence of fluorisis. The methods to remove excess fluoride are often cumbersome and expensive. Treatment technologies have several drawbacks and  should only be used when there is no other option of fluroide free water available.

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Livestock Waste and its Impact on Human Health

Saxena, KL, Sewak, R.
International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol 6(7); 1084-1099
Jul. 2016

Livestock waste has become a large contributer to contamination of water, making it dangerous to human health if consumed or used for washing. Animal production is increasing due to a multiplying population, becoming an increasing threat to water bodies. This article provides possible solutions.

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When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Kumpel, E., Peletz, R., Bonham, M., Fay, A., Cock-Esteb, A., Khush, R.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol 12, 10846-10860
Jun. 2016

This study reveals that water quality testing occurs in labs and not at the water sources, therefore, mobile phone-based data will help institutions collect data from multiple labs and offices. This will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of such an intervention.

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Making Water Work: Small Water Enterprises Provide Communities Access to Safe Drinking Water

Skoczlas Cole, A., Soderlund, K.
Water Quality Products
Jun. 2016

As the global water sector begins to focus not only on the number of people with access to water, but the quality dimensions of that access, this paper examines small water enterprises as a means to  provide affordable, safe water to those most in need.

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Mobile for Development Utilities: Improving Water Service Delivery Through Mobile Data Collection

Jun. 2016

Inefficient water delivery services have led to consumers in mostly sub-Saharan Africa and Asia without access to improved drinking water. Mobile technology is now being used to collect and share data on water functionality and use, hoping to improve water service delivery.

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Consumer Research Interventions

Safe Water Network
Apr. 2016

This guide has the researched and tested methods of Safe Water Network in providing sustainable water systems in  developing nations. Such systems often face barriers in quality, financial sustainability, ownership, and inclusiveness, which the organization has managed to overcome with experience.

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