Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Impact of Water-Vending Kiosks and Hygiene Education on Household Drinking Water Quality in Rural Ghana

Opryszko, MC at al.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Feb. 2013

The study indicates that households using for-profit water-vending WaterHealth Centers in Ghana had improved water quality compared with households using untreated surface water. However, only 38% of households using these kiosks by the third year, 60% of which had E. coli in their water.

Download PDF (690.18 KB)

The Decentralized Water Market: Assessing and Overcoming the Hurdles to Scale in Kenya

Safe Water Network and International Finance Corporation
Sanitation and Safe Water for All (SSAWA) program
Jan. 2013

An assessment of experiences with decentralized market-based approaches in the Kenya water sector identifies options for attracting greater commercial investment in the sector, both in Kenya and elsewhere. Opportunities lie in private  commercial operators to work in concert with sector reform. 

Download PDF (5.8 MB)

Impact of Water-Vending Kiosks and Hygiene Education on Household Drinking Water Quality in Rural Ghana

Opryszko, Y., MacDonald, L., MacDonald, L., Kiihl, S., Schwab, K.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; Vol 88, 651-660
Jan. 2013

This study assesses a for-profit water-vending kiosk organization in rural Ghana to determine the quality of household drinking water. Surface water is treated with filtration and UV light disinfection. Results showed the water to be of  improved quality versus untreated surface water.

Download PDF (699.38 KB)

Water Source and Diarrhoeal Disease Risk in Children Under 5 Years Old in Cambodia: A Prospective Diary Based Study

Hunter et al.
BMC Public Health
Jan. 2013

This study suggests that water from “1001 fontaines pour demain,” which supports water entrepreneurs in communities to build water treatment and distribution businesses, provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water, and raises concerns about assumptions on the safety of groundwater. 

Download PDF (339.14 KB)

Development Financing for Tangible Results: A Paradigm Shift to Impact Investing and Outcome Models - The Case of Sanitation in Asia

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP)
Jan. 2013

Public budgets are getting tighter, and there is a greater need for the private sector to intervene and add to financing and delivery of sanitation services. This report focuses on how to mobilize and scale the expertise of the corporate sector.

Download PDF (9.41 MB)

Sustainable Energy & Water Access through M2M Connectivity

Nique, M., & Arab, F.
Jan. 2013

More people are now covered by mobile networks than have access to energy and water. M2M has created opportunities to reach and empower underserved populations with improved reliability of rural water projects - one example is low cost GSM enabled remote monitoring of water pumps.

Download PDF (1.65 MB)

The Joint Effects of Efficacy and Compliance: A Study of Household Water Treatment Effectiveness Against Childhood Diarrhea

Enger, K., Nelson, K., Rose, J., Eisenberg, J.
Dec. 2012

The effectiveness of household water treatment on preventing diarrhea is dependent on efficacy and whether the treatment is done properly each time to the drinking water. Without perfect compliance, the water remains contaminated and incidence of diarrhea does not decrease.

Download PDF (929.75 KB)

Evaluating the Sustained Health Impact of Household Chlorination of Drinking Water in Rural Haiti

Harshfield, E., Lantagne, D., Turbes, A., and Null, C.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sep. 2012

An evaluation of the long-term Jolivert Safe Water for Families program in Haiti showed diarrheal disease reduction was comparable with that seen in short-term randomized, controlled interventions, suggesting that household chlorination can be an effective long-term water treatment strategy. 

Download PDF (1.16 MB)

Decentralized Safe Water Kiosks: Working Toward a Sustainable Model in Ghana

Safe Water Network
Aug. 2012

This report details the specific challenges Safe Water Network faced in Ghana since 2009, when it set out to demonstrate whether locally-owned, decentralized safe water systems could meet demand for safe water in Ghana on a sustainable basis. It also identifies the next set of priorities. 

Download PDF (5.06 MB)

Accelerating Impact: Achievements, Challenges and What's Next in Building the Impact Investing Industry

E.T. Jackson and Associates Ltd
Rockefeller Foundation
Jul. 2012

A scan of the evolution of the impact investment worldwide, informed by interviews with more than 100 impact investors from 11 countries, shows the industry  remains in the market-building phase but could evolve to the next phase in which stakeholders fully capture the value of the marketplace.

Download PDF (5.95 MB)