Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Dalberg
Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.

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Investing in Water and Sanitation: Increasing Access and Reducing Inequalities

UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water
Jan. 2014

Between 1990 and 2012, 2.3 billion people globally gained access to an improved drinking water source. However billions lack access to safe water that is reliably and continuously delivered in sufficient quantities, and 1/3 of the global population lives without basic sanitation facilities. 

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A Post-2015 Global Goal for Water: Synthesis of Key Findings and Recommendations from UN Water

UN Water
Jan. 2014

Water’s fundamental importance for human development, the environment and the economy needs to feature prominently in the new post-2015 development agenda. UN-Water and partners developed suggestions for a dedicated global goal for water, ‘securing sustainable water for all.' 

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The 4Ps of Inclusive Business: How Perseverance, Partnerships, Pilots and Passion Can Lead to Success

Ashley, C., Harrison, T., Schramm, C., and the BIP Implementation team
Business Innovation Facility
Jan. 2014

Two themes emerge for success in inclusive business: companies investing in such business need the right model, but this takes time and innovation; and commercial and social returns are small and variable, but are emerging and expected to grow significantly over the next five years.

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Water Source and Diarrhoeal Disease Risk in Children Under 5 Years Old in Cambodia: A Prospective Diary-Based Study

Hunter, P.R., et al.
BMC Public Health
Dec. 2013

Using data on diarrhoeal disease risk in Cambodian children under 5 years old, this study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater is safe water for the purposes of assessing MDG targets. Furthermore, the study suggests that water provided by the NGO 1001 Fontaines provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water.

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Small Town Water Services: Trends, Challenges and Models

Adank, M
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Dec. 2013

Since 2007, more people live in urban areas than rural areas. Small towns are expected to grow in number making it essential to understand how to equip them with sustainable water services. There is a growing role for the private sector in providing these services, along with the public sector.

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Sustainable Water Services Delivery Project Report

Fisher, M., Lecker, H., Samani, D., and Apoya, P.
Water and Sanitation for Africa, UNC Water Institute, Conrad N. Hilton Foundation
Oct. 2013

The results of this collaborative assessment show approximately 80% of the water points surveyed were functional - the functionality of older water points decreased by 2% per year of age and  systems collecting a tariff were 40% more likely to be functional than those without a tariff.

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Designing Philanthropy for Impact: Giving to the Biggest Gaps in India

Mangaleswaran, R., and Venkataraman, R.
McKinsey & Company
Oct. 2013

"Designing for impact" (before starting interventions) is integral to the dialogue in philanthropy in India. This paper assesses the biggest gaps in philanthropy in India along two dimensions - sectors or causes and modes or types of interventions. Water is identified as a critical gap. 

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Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale

Arnold et al.
BMJ Open
Aug. 2013

The WASH Benefits study aims to fill the evidence gap on the effects of individual and combined interventions - water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional  - on diarrhea and growth when delivered to infants and young children. Here, study design and rationale are explained. 

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Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

Boisson et al.
PLoS ONE
Aug. 2013

This study, designed to overcome shortcomings of previous double-blinded trials of household water treatment, provides no evidence that the intervention was protective against diarrhoea. Low compliance and modest reduction in water contamination may have contributed to the lack of effect. 

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Public Health and Social Benefits of at-house Water Supplies

Evans, B., Bartram, J., Hunter, P., Williams, A.R., Geere, J., Majuru, B., Bates, L., Fisher, M., Overbo, Al, Schmidt, W.
University of Leeds
Jun. 2013

At-home water supply has significant, measurable benefits compared to shared water supply outside the home provided that the service provided is reliable enough to ensure access to adequate quantities of water when required, suggesting a logical policy shift towards  promotion of household access.

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