Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Dalberg
Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.

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Impact of the Provision of Safe Drinking Water on School Absence Rates in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

Hunter, P., Risebro, H., Yen, M., Lefebvre, H., Lo, C., Hartemann, P., Longuet, C., Jaquenoud, F.
PLOS ONE, Vol 9, Issue 3
Mar. 2014

This study undertakes the theory that clean water access in school will prevent absenteeism in Cambodia. There was a strong association between provision of safe water delivery and absenteeism. However, the reason for the association is not evident.

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Factors Contributing to Child Mortality Reductions in 142 Low- and Middle-Income Countries between 1990 and 2010

Bishai et al.
Population Association of America
Mar. 2014

Since 1990, child mortality has declined by 41% worldwide, due  primarily to changes in levels of health determinants, more than changes in their efficacy or impact. The rise in access to clean water accounted for about 15% of observed child mortality decline.

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Framework for Assessing and Monitoring Rural and Small Town Water Supply Services in Ghana

Community Water and Sanitation Agency
National Community Water and Sanitation Programme
Mar. 2014

This document presents a list of indicators developed to monitor and evaluate rural and small town water supply service levels, functionality, and performance in Ghana. It also provides the data that needs to be collected in order to assess the indicators.

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Towards a Sustainable Allocation of Potable Water in Ghana: Evidence from Kumasi

Quartey, J.
International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, Vol 2, 1-10
Mar. 2014

With growing population and urbanization, there is a lot of time and productivity lost due to time-consuming, labor-intensive, and counter-productive methods to collect water. An efficient water distribution system will reduce time wasted and thus have immense economic and social benefits.

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Safe Water Network in India

Neena Sondhi, Sajjan Raj Singhvi
Harvard Business Review
Feb. 2014

This sales and marketing case study published in the Harvard Business Review considers Safe Water Network's efforts in Nizampally, India to: customize demand-driven solutions for the specific water-related issues of the region; gain support from prominent Indian and international companies; and ensure economic sustainability, which required active local participation and ownership. Note: document must be purchased through the Harvard Business Review. 

Microgrids for Rural Electrification: A Critical Review of Best Practices Based on Seven Case Studies

Schnitzer, D., Lounsbury, D., Carvallo, J., Deshmukh, R., Apt, J., Kammen, D.
United Nations Foundation
Feb. 2014

Microgrids have the potential to provide electricity in rural and peri-urban areas. Electricty can increase productivity in these communities as electric pumps supplying clean drinking water replace manual collection of water which is usually unsafe for consumption and time-consuming.

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Why “Improved” Water Sources are not Always Safe

Shaheed, A., Orgill, J., Montgomery, M., Jeuland, M., Brown, J.
WHO
Jan. 2014

This paper highlights factors that contribute to variability in water safety but may not always be recognized. Problems in adequate quality and quantity of water that are often caused by human behavior may contribute to an increased risk of poor health. 

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Chasing for Water': Everyday Practices of Water Access in Peri-Urban Ashaiman, Ghana

Peloso, M., Morinville, C.
Water Alternatives; Vol 7, Issue 1
Jan. 2014

This paper assesses the water access for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area population. The official water supply system is not sufficient to meet needs, and many households find themselves procuring water from informal suppliers that prove to be more reliable in terms of availability.

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Tapping the Markets: Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Water and Sanitation for the Poor

Sy, J., Warner, R., Jamieson, J.
The World Bank
Jan. 2014

There is a gap in water supply and demand that can be met if governements engage the private sector. The market potential is large, and poor populations are willing to pay for the security of private water services. Their costs and prices can be reduced if scaled, and if policies assist them.

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Evidence-Based Tailoring of Behavior-Change Campaigns: Increasing Fluoride-Free Water Consumption in Rural Ethiopia with Persuasion

Huber, A., Tobias, R., and Mosler, H-J.
Applied Psychology: Health and Wellbeing
Jan. 2014

Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Behavior-change campaigns implemented in Ethiopia show interventions are more likely effective if based on evidence and tailored to specific households.

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