Water Essentials

The Untapped Potential of Decentralized Solutions to Provide Safe, Sustainable Drinking Water at Large Scale

Jan. 2017
This report argues that new approaches are needed to achieve the U.N. Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 by 2030. Through the analysis of 14 different small water enterprises, the report uncovers bottlenecks to scale and sustainability.



Opportunities and Challenges of Community-Based Rural Drinking Water Supplies

Sun, Y., Asante, F., Birner, R.
International Food Policy Research Institute
Oct. 2010

Ghana has adopted a community-based approach to overcome the challenge of supplying drinking water to rural areas. Communities with large ethnic diversities are less likely to have functioning water systems, and cooperative leadership helps provide communities with these services.

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Public-Private Partnerships For Small Piped Water Schemes

Water and Sanitation Program
Oct. 2010

This field note reviews the first generation of public-private partnerships for small piped water enterprises in a number of African countries, and proposes a framework for more sustainable PPPs of this nature. Some ideas to consider are improving contracting practices and the enabling environment.

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A Review of Progress in Seven African Countries: Public-Private Partnerships for Small Piped Water Schemes

Gia, L.H. & Fugelsnes, T.
World Bank Water & Sanitation Program
Oct. 2010

The first generation of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for small piped water schemes in seven African countries construct a framework comprising four building blocks: improving contracting practices, enabling environment, capacity of the PPP stakeholders, and information tools and services.

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Field Assessment of a Novel Household-Based Water Filtration Device: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Boisson, S. et al.
Sep. 2010

Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of water and may prevent diarrheal diseases, but bias can effect reported health impact in open trials. This randomised, controlled trial shows little evidence that a novel filtration device  was protective against diarrhea.

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Myths of the Rural Water Supply Sector

Rural Water Supply Network
May. 2010

This document examines several common myths associated with rural water supply, and provides evidence as to why they  are not pragmatically true. It describes how enterprises can overcome these myths to provide sustainable and effective clean water supplies in rural regions.

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End-User Preferences for and Performance of Competing POU Water Treatment Technologies among the Rural Poor of Kenya

Albert, J., Luoto, J., and Levine, D.
Environmental Science & Technology
Jan. 2010

We do not understand the factors that influence preference for and adoption of household point-of-use water treatment technologies targeted at vulnerable populations. In this study of 400 rural subsistence farm households in Kenya, relative end-user preference was measured across three products. 

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Cost of Delivering Water Services in Rural Areas and Small Towns in Ghana

Nyarko K. B., Dwumfour-Asare, B., Appiah-Effah, E. and Moriarty, P.
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Jan. 2010

The life-cycle costs approach quantifies the cost of delivering water services in rural areas and small towns in Ghana: average annual cost for small town piped water systems ranges from US$ 10 to 14 per capita per year while that for water point sources is about US$ 4 per capita per year

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Estimating the Scope of Household Water Treatment in Low- and Medium-Income Countries

Rosa, G., Clasen, T.
The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jan. 2010

About 33% of low and medium income countries are using household water treatment to improve water quality and prevent disease. Boiling the water is the dominant method. African and rural households are least likely to use treatment despite having poor access to improved water sources.

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Sick Water? The Central Role of Wastewater Management in Sustainable Development

Jan. 2010

As urban populations grow, and slums flourish, there is an increase in volume of waste water that needs to be managed with improved infrastructures and systems. Waste-water tends to contaminate clean water, and as a result there is a threat in reduction of safe water availability. 

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Alternatives for Safe Water Provision in Urban and Peri-Urban Slums

Ali, S.I.
Journal of Water and Health
Jan. 2010

Due to lack of resources in developing countries, water treatment systems tend to be decentralized and often water treatment occurs at the household level. This paper explores the potential of developing community level systems by engaging the community and government.

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